Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Signaling, Department of Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology,

77 Chengam-Ro, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk South Korea (37673)

Tel) 82 - 54 - 279 - 2352   l   E-mail)



Nguyen, K.T., Kim, J.-M., Park, S.-E., and Hwang. C.-S. (2019) N-terminal methionine excision of proteins creates tertiary destabilizing N-degrons of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, J Biol Chem., (in press).

Nguyen, K.T., Lee, C.-S., Mun, S.-H, Truong, N.T., Park, S.K., and Hwang, C.-S. (2019) N-terminal acetylation and N-end rule pathway control  degradation of the lipid droplet protein PLIN2. J Biol Chem, 294(1):379-388.



Kim JM, SeoK OH, Ju S, Heo JE, Yeom J, Yoo JY, Varshavsky A, Lee C*, and Hwang CS* (2018) Formyl-methionine as a eukaryotic N-end rule pathway. Science (article), Nov 30; 362 (6418). eaat0174.


Nguyen KT, Mun SH, Lee CS, Hwang CS (2018) Control of protein degradation by N-terminal acetylation and the N-end rule pathway. Exp Mol Med 27;50(7):91.




Lee KE*, Heo JE*, Kim JM and Hwang CS (2016) N-Terminal Acetylation-Targeted N-end rule proteolytic system: The Ac/N-end rule pahtway. Mol Cells 39(3):169-178.

Wadas B, Borigin J, Huang Z, Jang-Hyun Oh, Hwang CS and Varshavsky A (2016) Degradation of serotoinin N-acetyltransferase, a circadian regulator, by the N-end rule pathway. J Biol Chem

Park MJ, Sheng R, Silkov A, Jung DJ, Wang ZG,  Xin Y, Kim H, Thiagarajan-Rosenkranz P, Song S, Yoon Y, Nam W, Kim I, Kim E, Lee DG, Chen Y, Singaram I, Wang L, Jang MH, Hwang CS, Honig B, Ryu S, Lorieau J, Kim YM and Cho W (2016) SH2 Domains Serve as Lipid-Binding Modules for pTyr-Signaling Proteins. Mol Cell, 62:7-20.


Park SE#, Kim JM#, Seok OH, Cho H, Wadas B, Kim SY, Varshavsky A* and Hwang CS* (2015) Control of mammalian G protein signaling by N-terminal acetylation and the N-end rule pathway, Science, 347(6227):1249-1252.

​Piatkov K, Vu TTM, Hwang CS, Varshavsky A (2015) Formyl-methionine as a degradation signal at the N-termini of bacterial proteins, Microbial Cell, 10.15698/mic2015, 376-393.

Kim J, Saint-Andre C, Lim H, Hwang CS, Egly JM, Cho Y (2015) Crystal Structure of the Rad3/XPD regulatory domain of Ssl1/p44. J Biol Chem 290(13):8321-8330.

Sun HY, Kim N, Hwang CS, Yoo JY (2015) Protein Degradation of RNA Polymerase II-Association Factor 1(PAF1) Is Controlled by CNOT4 and 26S Proteasome. PLoS One, 10(5):e0125599.


Kim HK#, Kim RR#, Oh JH, Cho H, Varshavsky A* and Hwang CS* (2014) The N-terminal methionine of cellular proteins as a degradation signal, Cell, 156:158-69. 

Kim JM and Hwang CS (2014) Crosstalk between the Arg/N-end and Ac/N-end rule, Cell Cycle, 13:1366-1367. 


Lee KE#, Ahn JY#, Kim JM and Hwang CS (2014) Synthetic lethal screen of NAA20, a catalytic subunit gene of NatB N-terminal acetylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Microbiol, 52:842-848 (#co-first authors).


Shemorry A, Hwang CS and Varshavsky A (2013) Control of Protein Quality and Stoichiometries by N-Terminal Acetylation and the N-End Rule Pathway, Mol Cell, 50:540-551. 



Hwang CS, Sukalo M, Batygin O, Addor M, Brunner H, Aytes AP, Mayerle J, Song HK, Varshavsky A and Zenker M (2011) Ubiquitin ligases of the N-end rule  pathway: assessment of mutations in UBR1 that cause the Johanson-Blizzard syndrome, PLoS One 6, e24925.




Hwang CS, Shemorry A, Auerbach D and Varshavsky A (2010) The N-end rule pathway is mediated by a complex of the RING-type Ubr1 and HECT-type Ufd4 ubiquitin ligases, Nat Cell Biol, 12: 1177-1185. 

Hwang CS., Shemorry A and Varshavsky A (2010) N-terminal acetylation of cellular proteins creates specific degradation signals. Science, 327, 973-977.


Hwang CS, Shemorry A and Varshavsky A (2009) Two proteolytic pathways regulate DNA repair by co-targeting the Mgt1 alkylguanine transferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109, 2142-2147.


Hwang CS and Varshavsky A (2008) Regulation of peptide import through phosphorylation of Ubr1, the ubiquitin ligase of the N-end rule pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 49, 19188-19193.

Xia Z, Turner GC, Hwang CS, Byrd C and Varshavsky A (2008) Amino acids induce peptide uptake via accelerated degradation of CUP9, the transcriptional repressor of the PTR2 peptide transporter. J Biol Chem 283, 28958-28968.


Hwang CS, Baek YU, Yim HS and Kang, SO (2003) Protective roles of mitochondrial manganese-containing superoxide dismutase against various stresses from Candida albicans. Yeast 20, 929-941.

Hwang CS, Oh JH, Huh WK, Yim HS and Kang SO (2003) Ssn6, an important factor of morphological conversion and virulence in Candida albicans. Mol Microbiol 47, 1029-1043. (Cover section).


Hwang CS, Rhie Ge, Oh JH, Huh WK, Yim HS and Kang, SO (2002) Copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase is required for the protection from oxidative stresses and full virulence in Candida albicans. Microbiology 148, 3705-3713.


Lee JS, Huh WK, Lee BH, Baek, YU, Hwang CS, Kim ST, Kim, YR and Kang SO (2001) Mitochondrial NADH-cytochrome b(5) reductase plays a crucial role in the reduction of D-erythroascorbyl free radical in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta 1527, 31-38.


Cho SH, Na JU, Youn H, Hwang CS, Lee CH and Kang SO (1999) Sepiapterin reductase producing L-threo-dihydrobiopterin from Chlorobium tepidum. Biochem J 340, 497-503.


Hwang CS, Rhie Ge, Kim ST, Kim YR, Huh WK, Baek YU and Kang SO (1999) Copper-and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase and its gene from Candida albicans. Biochim Biophys Acta 1427, 245-255.


Rhie, Ge, Hwang CS, Brady MJ, Kim ST, Kim YR, Huh WK, Baek YU, Lee BH, Lee JS and Kang SO (1999) Manganese-containing superoxide dismutase and its gene from Candida albicans. Biochim Biophys Acta 1426, 409-419. 


Huh WK, Lee BH, Kim ST, Kim YR, Rhie Ge, Baek YW, Hwang CS, Lee JS and Kang SO (1998) D-Erythroascorbic acid is an important antioxidant molecule in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol 30, 95-903.

Cho SH, Na JU, Youn H, Hwang CS, Lee CH and Kang, SO (1998) Tepidopterin, threo-biopterin beta-N-acetylglucosamine from Chlorobium tepidum. Biochim Biophys Acta 1379, 53-60.

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